From LFF to AFL
The cornerstone of what is today known as the Armed Forces of Liberia was laid in 1908 when our territorial integrity was under frequent attacks as a result of porous borders and foreign encroachment of our land. The recruitment and inauguration of the first 500-strong men on February 06, 1908 into the Liberian Frontier Force was a milestone in our history. A sturdy caveat was sent to Great Britain and France to dislodge their territorial ambitions.
After 48 years of existence, the Liberian Frontier Force (LFF) metamorphosized into the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) under the Amended National Defense Law of 1956. The New National Defense Act of 2008 was approved on August 21, 2008. It repeals the National Defense Act of 1956, the Coast Guard Act of 1959, and the Liberian Navy Act of 1986. Our National Defense Force is far from achieving its full strength due to insufficient support.
Spotlighting the New AFL
The security of Liberia seems not to be a priority to this regime simply because UNMIL soldiers are still present in huge quantity. The quantity of UNMIL’s personnel surpasses our current AFL. This exposes our government’s weakness in defending its citizenry especially against external aggression and potential insecurity. The most recent population statistics of Liberia is more than 4 million. The total population of Liberia is 2,000 times higher than its military composition. This means one AFL soldier is under statutory mandate to provide security for 2,000 citizens at once. The gap is too wide and this could lead to continuous military fatigue and failure.
The challenge we have as a nation to build a qualitative and quantitative security sector is too huge and we must begin to mitigate them now in order to protect our sovereignty and maintain domestic civility. It is time for our leaders to invest more in security, because economic stability depends wholly on security. The United States of America is great today because of its military might. It is unarguably evident that insecurity leads to instability and anarchy.
The annual budget of the National Legislature cannot be US$38,011,856 while AFL has an annual budget of US$11 million. This is a serious contradict on the part of our government even though it has made big public commitments to prioritize national security. AFL soldiers are among the least paid military personnel in Africa and the World.
As terrorism threatens world peace and stability, the AFL is still unready and unprepared to confront potential security threats due to limited budgetary support. Over the last 5 years, appropriations to the AFL have been reducing for no justifiable reason(s). During 2010/2011 fiscal year, the AFL received US$15 million. This amount was reduced in 2012 to US$12,533,017. The budget of the AFL currently is US$11 million. Out of this tiny budget, 74% represents personnel costs and 26% accounts for goods and services including dry ration for soldiers’ fuel and general services.
Key budget line items including burial and death benefits of about US$9,400 was cut from the AFL budget. Isn’t this discouraging? How do we expect more citizens to join our military force when the government takes no responsibility of giving them befitting burials when they die while serving their country? It even becomes more difficult for soldiers to serve with conviction and passion due to poor motivation and support.
Liberians can only become proud of a vibrant ARMY tomorrow if State actors implement timely and unique policy measures to upgrade our current AFL. The load we have to carry as a nation is burdensome and it takes collectivism and commitment to regain our real rank in Africa. We cannot boast of being Africa’s first independent nation when we have the least military force. We cannot claim to have ushered countries like Guinea, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, South Africa, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Gabon, and Cape Verde into a self-governing status when we are crawling behind these countries in almost every aspect of development. This is an irony!
The Bad Side of Liberia’s Post-conflict AFL
According to the New National Defense Act of 2008 Section 2.3(a): The primary mission of the AFL shall be to defend the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Liberia, including land, air and maritime territory, against external aggressions, insurgency, terrorism and encroachment. In addition thereto the AFL shall respond to natural disasters and engage in other civic works as may be required or directed. Have men and women in arms been abiding by sections 2.3 and 2.5 of our New National Defense Act?
As Liberians celebrate another Armed Forces Day in fear and panic due to series of mysterious deaths around the country, it is crucial to recount some of those unethical behaviors of our new defense force which contravene democratic values and tenets. Some AFL soldiers have been orchestrating acts of torture, intimidation, harassment, extortion, abuse, and other inhumane treatments since 2010. This is a brief profile of allegations against military personnel in Liberia according to the State Department Report of the United States of America:
1. In April 2010, three AFL soldiers were accused of killing two civilians.
2. On July 5, 2011 Harris Williams, an Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) soldier, allegedly killed Henry Freeman, a Liberia National Police (LNP) officer during a personal dispute.
3. In July 2011, five AFL soldiers were relieved of their positions in Gbarnga for misconduct following allegations of assault against local residents.
4. In 2012, an AFL disciplinary board investigates alleged misconduct and abuses by military security forces. Criminal cases were transferred to the LNP and MOJ for prosecution due to the lack of a military justice system.
5. The military clampdown on West Point during the Ebola crisis in 2014 further exposed our new AFL’s inability to properly manage tension by complying with modern-day security ethics. The death of a teenager, Shaki Kamara, beating of armless civilians, and severe wounding of two young citizens by AFL personnel were acts of cruelty and unprofessionalism. I hope Shaki and others will have Justice soon!
6. In December 2014, 30 soldiers of the AFL were dismissed for ‘abandoning’ their respective duty-station at the Edward Binyan Kesselly Barracks on the Roberts International Airport Highway.
The continuous dismissal of military men is disturbing and this could put the security of the State at risk as well. We cannot continue to dismiss security officers without according them due process especially through a system of military justice (UCMJ). How can anyone brag that Liberia has an army when this ‘army’ lacks a system of Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)? This sounds ludicrous and laughable!
However, Liberia cannot build a ‘force for good’ when indiscipline is gradually creeping into our military. The misconduct of some soldiers is not surprising, because intensive vetting and evaluation was never done during recruitment exercises. Today, our evolving AFL is not free from ex-combatants and renegades who were notably infamous for committing heinous atrocities and human rights abuses.
Furthermore, some of these misbehaviors have been emanating from personal dissatisfactions and insufficient support from central government. From reliable sources, few of our barracks are experiencing reduction in manpower due to poor working relationship between higher-ups and the Soldiers. Lack of adequate funding, disposable income, incentives and other support to men and women in arms is a major challenge to Liberia’s security sector, as abandonment of post takes precedence.
Comparing AFL with Foreign Military Forces
I am yet to find a military force in West Africa to compare our new AFL to, because this will further expose how weak our defense system is, judging from prevailing conditions. The military forces of neighboring Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Ivory Coast are advanced than ours, both in quantity and quality. The military of these three countries have more men, budgetary appropriations and modern equipment. They have a stronger navy and air force to defend their territorial security and national interest. For example, Ivory Coast has a military budget of over US$541 million which is almost totaling Liberia’s annual budget.
The United States, Russia, China, India, United Kingdom, France, Germany, South Korea, Italy, and Brazil have great armies today because of their willingness to invest more resources into security. No nation can remain or become powerful without advancing its security interest. The United States is great today because it has a defense budget of over US$689,591,000,000 with 1,477,896 active military personnel, 15,293 aircrafts, and 153,600,000 Labor Force.
Egypt, Algeria, Ethiopia, South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Morocco, Tunisia, Angola, and Libya are proud to become Africa’s military superpowers in this 21st century because they have gone beyond understanding what it means to protect their territories from internal instability and external insecurity. In spite of its internal struggles, Egypt ranks number 13 in the World and number 1 in Africa in terms of military might. This North African Country has a defense budget of over US$4,400,000,000 with 468,500 active military personnel, 1,100 aircrafts, 4767 war tanks, and 27,000,000 labor force.
I wish Liberia could become one of West Africa’s military superpowers in the not too distance future. This target is only achievable if those who are currently leading our country provide adequate support to men and women in arms. I challenge this sitting regime to considerably increase our military budget this coming fiscal year and lobby with foreign countries for logistical assistance and defense aids. I hope by 2017, Liberians will be able to point to an aircraft, gun-boat, war tank, helicopter, plane, and other modern military gears. The need to build a strong Navy and Air Force is very vital to sustaining national security and consolidating genuine peace.
Saluting Former and Fallen AFL Personnel
Before this present government could embark on this journey of reforming the AFL since 2006, there were men and women of great valor who stood the test of time to ensure national security and territorial integrity. Their firm dedication to service has brought Liberia this far and we must not ignore those meaningful sacrifices they made to safeguard our State from dangers and disorders. We remain ever grateful to all of them who actively served our military with honesty and bravery from 1908 to 2003.
The footprints of those former and fallen patriots portray an excellent emblem of loyalty and devotion to nation building. As we proceed towards developing an energetic military force, I hope our new soldiers will begin to emulate the good examples of those veterans. There is delight in saluting statesmen whose commitment to protecting public interest yesteryear is replete and I reserve no regret to flower ex-AFL soldiers with endless gratitude.
They have played their part and we must do ours now in order to sustain what was started long before our arrival. Some of them are living with us today struggling to survive even though they spent their life and time serving a country that careless about them now. Others are dead, but their widows and children ramble in shackles everyday to overcome multiple adversities. I thought this government should be providing decent retirement packages and benefits for widows and widowers of ex-Soldiers. The government of President Sirleaf needs to do more in finding a long-lasting remedy to this dilemma. We also want to flower men and women currently in arms who have chosen never to go against the oath they took.
Appreciation to America
The contribution of the United States of America to Liberia is worth commending. The collaboration between these two countries has come a long way and any attempt to sequentially narrate the benevolent assistance of America to Liberia’s post-war military will only render the pages of this scholarly paper infinite. The good gesture of our longstanding partner (USA) is countless and priceless. I want to extend my earnest appreciation to all taxpaying citizens of America for supporting us during this epoch of restructuring a vibrant military force.
Since Liberia began transforming its military, the US government has made a commitment of over US$95 million to train over 2,000 soldiers. This donation which comes from the combination of International Disaster and Famine Assistance, Regional Peacekeeping, and Foreign Military Assistance funds has helped to upgrade the new AFL. We also appreciate DynCorp and Pacific Architects and Engineers (PAE) for coordinating with US military personnel to help transform our defense sector to some extent even though more needs to be done.
We are grateful to the UN and other generous nations like China and Nigeria as well for their never-ending support to Liberia’s Security Sector Reform (SSR) agenda. The security needs of our country are too enormous and we cannot reach to the point of protecting ourselves without genuine global corporation and mutual alliance. We have recognized that less than 2500 military men are too small to ensure external and internal security. This figure does not commensurate with our current population. As UNMIL drawdown proceeds, we are pleading with the International Community to provide more assistance to our evolving AFL.
Happy Armed Forces Day
As it stands, Liberia does not have an army as a result of its tiny military manpower, lack of military logistics, modern equipment, technology, limited funding and civilian workforce. It is a shame for our country to not even have an Air Force and an effective Water Force. I maintain that the current standing of Liberia’s military is between Battalion and Brigade. We are yet too far from achieving an army-status, but it is not impossible to get there as a nation. Our military can only graduate from a stage of infancy to maturity if the mindset of pubic trustees is driven by irreversible principles of transparency, accountability, patriotism, integrity and selflessness.
As our AFL clocks 59 years this month, I humbly extend my sincere greetings and best wishes to the government and peace loving people of Liberia, men and women in arms, military civilians, ex-AFL soldiers, widows and widowers of fallen soldiers, family members and friends. The surety of everlasting peace, inclusive development, and national integration cannot become a reality of this century in Liberia if security is not prioritized beyond UNMIL’s departure.
About The Author: Martin K. N. Kollie is a Liberian youth activist, student leader, an emerging economist, and a young writer. He is currently a student at the University of Liberia reading Economics and a member of the Student Unification Party (SUP). He can be reached at [email protected]